When starting to explore the world of mech mods, it is important to start by understanding the basics of **voltage, current, and resistance**. These are the three basic building blocks required to utilize electricity among different devices and batteries. At first, these concepts can be difficult to understand for beginners cannot “see” them. One cannot see with the naked eye the energy flowing through the wires and posts inside atomizer or the voltage of a battery inside a mech mod.

Fear not, this tutorial will give you the basic understanding of voltage, current, and resistance and how the three relate to each other in Ohm’s Law. Also, we will talk about sub-ohm vaping and introduce the very first 20700 cells mech mod – IJOY WondervapeCO.

There are three basic principles that explained using mech mod devices, or more specifically, the charge they create:

**Voltage**is the difference in charge between two points.**Current**is the rate at which charge is flowing.**Resistance**is the material’s tendency to resist the flow of charge (current).

So, when we talk about these values, we’re really describing the movement of battery charge, and thus, the behavior of electrons. The circuit inside the mech mod is a closed loop that allows charge to move from the bottom case to the atomizer on the top.

To explain voltage, current, and resistance, a famous analogy is a water tank. In 1753, this analogy was once illustrated by Giovanni Beccaria, who is a famous Italian professor of experimental physics. In this analogy, charge is represented by the water amount, voltage is represented by the water pressure, and current is represented by the water flow.

**Water**is the Charge**Pressure**is the Voltage**Flow**is the Current

This water tank is set at a certain height above the ground and at the bottom of the tank comes a hose. The pressure at the end of the hose can represent voltage. The water in the tank represents charge. The more water in the tank, the higher the charge, the more pressure at the end of the hose.

The tank is just like a battery, a place where we store a certain amount of energy and then release it. If we drain our tank a certain amount, the pressure at the end of the hose goes down. We can think of this as voltage decreasing. There is also a decrease in the amount of water flowing. Less pressure means less water is flowing through the hose from the tank, which brings us to current. With electricity, we could measure the amount of charge flowing through the circuit over a period of time. Current is measured in Amps.

Since we can’t fit as much volume through a narrow pipe than a wider one at the same pressure. There is a “resistance” talk here. The narrow pipe “resists” the flow of water through it even though the water is at the same pressure as the water in the wider pipe.

In mech mod terms, resistance comes from **4 parts**. The coil wires resistance, the atomizer internal resistance, the device resistance and the battery internal resistance. Higher resistance will allow less charge to flow through it.

The batteries for most of the mechanical box mods today are either 18650 or 26650 series batteries. These batteries vary in Amps. As we noted above, amps are batteries’ ability to discharge stored energy (current). When a battery is pushed above its limits, the battery can vent, which means hot chemicals burst out of the battery under a huge pressure, blows up everything.

Georg Ohm, a German physicist, first found that, at a constant temperature, the electrical current flowing through a fixed linear resistance is directly proportional to the voltage applied across it, and also inversely proportional to the resistance. This relationship was presented as the famous **Ohms Law** shown below.

Also, if you are feeling lazy you can default to an ** Ohm’s Law calculator** for quick and easy number crunching. By doing this, you can check if your batteries are running at their safe discharge range.

To math out the coil wires resistance, you should always use 4.2 volts (the voltage of a fully charge battery) as the voltage. That is to say, you took this freshly charged 18650 1600mAh battery and tossed it in your mechanical mod with 4.2 voltage drop. Let’s say that the current CDR (also called Continuous Discharge Rate) is 40A and its maximum discharging rate is 60A, the number you get in this case is your safe resistance value. Our math is 4.2V / 40A = 0.105ohm, resistance upper this value will be relatively safe. Any resistance of the coil wires that lower than 4.2V / 60A = 0.07ohm will leads to short circuit. Resistance between 0.07 and 0.105 is neither safe nor absolutely dangerous.

In the case of battery, you took another fully charged 18650 battery and put it in your mechanical mod which the multimeter shows at the same 4.2 volts. You use the ohm reader to carefully select a 0.2 coils seated on top. You divide 4.2 volts by the ohms of your coil. The number you get will be the total amps. In this case our math is 4.2v / 0.2 ohm = 20A. Finally, you know that running this whole setup will push our battery to 20 amps limits and you can compare this coil’s amp draw number to the continuous discharge rate of the battery to make sure the former doesn’t exceed the former. In the strictest sense, this method is not 100% accurate since most of the time we don’t count the battery internal resistance and the device resistance.

**Short circuits** happen when the voltage from a battery is discharged through a low resistance wire which makes the discharge rate exceed the battery’s upper amp limit. This accident mostly commonly occurs in sub-ohm coiling.

A fully-charged battery should range between 4.15-4.20 volts. * Anything above 4.25V is absolutely unsafe.* And Resistance in coils can have a variance of 0.2 Ohms in either direction, or +/- 0.2 Ohms.

**Coil over 0.4ohm are recommended for 18650 batteries**As always, in the next part, we’re happy to introduce you to another new mech mod sells well on ave40.

When the power output of Vaping devices has drifted higher and higher, rather than juggling between the battery capacity and size by putting out another dual 18650 batteries, triple 18650 battery or even quadruple 18650 battery devices, IJOY is trying to use 20700 cells to seek a perfect balance between performance, availability and size on their mech mod.

Current mech mods come a variety of shapes and sizes beyond your standard tube and they are not rare nor unprecedented in this industry. However, the 20700 one is very catchy. The premise is very easy to understand: WondervapeCO 270 is a simple and pragmatic mech mod supported by a single 20700 cell.

__On ave40, IJOY WondervapeCO 270 will have 5 different tubes __(interchangeable sleeve) for vapers to choose from. They are Black, Rainbow, Carbon fiber, Resin and Blue Carving. The delicate brushed finish, which capture and reflect the light as the light running from bottom to top, adding movement in texture. It is pleasing to the eye for sure.

Measuring only 26mm diameter and 133mm height, WondervapeCO 270 can fit comfortably in your pocket. The cool minimalist design continues with the ergonomics fire button. WondervapeCO 270 features a Spinning structure fire button, absolutely the one that you have never seen before. Simply put, the fire button works as the bottom battery cover as well. When filling the 20700 battery, all you need to do is simply unscrew the battery. It’s very convenient. Besides, the pack also comes with a 18650-adapter, which is a welcome move and you don’t have to toss away your old 18650 batteries.

The fire button at the bottom is well-proportioned, clear-cut and reasonable sited, improving the operating experience. The ULTEM drip tip, which is one of the most common brand for the thermoplastic polyetherimide (PEI), is highly heat resistant, solvent, and flame resistant.

As for the tank, it comes with a unique designed build deck. The dual-electrode and four-hole electrode structure is very convenient for building coils, and the four cotton grooves are very functional to adjust the cotton’s length and density.

Today, we’ve talk about the “three basic principles” of voltage, current, and resistance in battery charging terms then we further explain the “ohm’s law in mech mod coil building”. Hopefully you now have a better understanding of how to use a mech mod in a safer way.

*Next Article: Beginner Guides / Tips for Mech Mod Users Part 4 “sub-ohm vaping in mech mod”*

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